Ontology and Policy Management  

Spatial Modeling and Reasoning

Existing Spatial Taxonomies

Existing KAoS Spatial Ontology:

Generic Spatial Ontologies:

  1. Spatial Relation - definition of spatial relation by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.
  2. Spatial Relation Ontology - contains 54 terms; written as Perl Regular Expressions
  3. Cyc Spatial Relations - collections, predicates and other Cyc constants that are used to represent spatial objects and relations

Geo Information Ontologies:

  1. geoOntologies - MindSwap work on geographic ontologies in 2004 (no activity this year) containing;
  2. MySQL Spatial Extensions - based on OpenGIS Geometry Model
  3. SWEET - ontologies for Earth system science, developed by JPL NASA, written in OWL, contain much more then definitions of spatial relations (see full list of SWEET ontologies), of interest is space ontology (see its hyperOWL and hyperONT)
  4. Drexel University ontologies for norms in OWL, including:
    • ISO 19115 standard - ISO 19115 ontology (hyperOWL and hyperONT) defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal schema, spatial reference, and distribution of digital geographic data.
    • ISO 19107:2003 standard - ISO 19107:2003 ontology (hyperOWL and hyperONT) specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic features, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing, and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects of up to three topological dimensions embedded in coordinate spaces of up to three axes
  5. space.frot - ontology to annotating space with metadata; about building semantic models of places; about exchanging geospatial data in RDF of interest is space ontology (see its hyperOWL and hyperONT). It is very geo oriented; a lot concept related to the city environment.

Pervasive Applications Ontologies:

  • SOUPA (page does not work in IE)- Standard Ontology for Ubiquitous and Pervasive Applications; contains a very limited OWL ontology of spatial concepts (see its hyperOWL and hyperONT)
  • COBRA - Context Broker Architecture (CoBrA) is an agent based architecture for supporting context-aware systems in smart spaces (e.g., intelligent meeting rooms, smart homes, and smart vehicles); of interest is ebiquity-geo ontology (see its hyperOWL and hyperONT)

Interim Conclusion: It seems that there is limited current activity in using OWL to represent spatial relations. Listed projects seem to loosen momentum with the beginning of this year (2005). Even them, however, would not support robotics space environment as is needed for Team VIP project scenario. They are more oriented toward Goe applications. Still, they are very useful as repositories of concepts to be selectively imported into the ontology constructed for the Team VIP project.

Spatial Reasoning - the problem of inference on properties of points or point sets in space

  • geoServices - MindSwap Web Services that calculate geographic relations according to coordinates and helps describe geographic assertions in ontologies (no recent activity)
  • MySQL Analyzing Spatial Information - provides a set of functions to perform various operations on spatial data: converting geometries between various formats, providing access to qualitative or quantitative properties of a geometry, describing relations between two geometries and creating new geometries from existing ones
  • Java API : java.awt.goem

Spatial Theory Research

XML Spatial Languages (rather faded development)

  • GML - the Geography Markup Language (version 2.0) is an XML based encoding standard for geographic information developed by the OpenGIS Consortium (OGC).
  • Interoperable geospatial objects - MITRE project from 1999 to represent geo data using XML
  • Geospatial XML - extend existing and draft OpenGIS standards to XML representation
  • SpaceML - aMark-up Language for Spatial Knowledge